Monday, February 23, 2015

μαθήματα Αγγλικών με τραγούδια=>Gotye - Somebody That I Used To Know

Αυτό είναι ένα δημοφιλές τραγούδι το οποίο είναι χρήσιμο για την εισαγωγή ή την εξάσκηση του "used to + infinitive". Περιέχει μια ακολουθία ενεργειών, συμπλήρωσης κενών και ένα γλωσσάρι για τους όρους αργκό. Αυτό το τραγούδι θα ήταν κατάλληλο για pre-intermediate, intermediate, upper intermediate και advanced επίπεδο.

1.Complete the spaces
Now and then I think of when we _____together
Like when you _____  you felt so happy you could die
I told myself that you were right for me
But felt so lonely in your __________
But that was _______ and it's an ache I still remember

  1. 2.Number the sentences in the correct sequence
(   ) But I'll admit that I was glad that it was over
(   ) So when we found that we could not make sense
(   ) Like resignation to the end, always the end
(   ) But you said that we could still be friends
( 1 )You can get addicted to a certain kind of sadness

  1. 3.Complete the spaces
But you didn't have to cut me off
Make it like it never happened and that we were nothing
I don't even need your love, but you treat me like a _______
And that feels so rough
No, you didn't have to stoop so low
Have your friends collect your rent
Conceal your _______ of number
Guess that I don't need that though
Now you're just somebody that I ________know

Now you're just somebody that I used to ________
Now you're just somebody that I used to know

Now and then I think of all the times you screwed me over
But had me believin it was ________ something that I'd done
But I don't wanna  _______that way
________ into every word you say
You said that you could let it go
And I wouldn't catch you hung up on somebody that you used to know-oh-oh

But you didn't _______  cut me off
Make it like it never happened and that we were nothing (oh)
I don't even need your love, but you treat me like a stranger
and that feels so rough

No, you didn't have to stoop so low
Have your friends collect your rent
And then change your number (oh)
Guess that I don't need that though
Now you're just somebody that I used to know

Somebody that I used to know

Monday, February 9, 2015

Raising a Moral Child

What does it take to be a good parent? We know some of the tricks for teaching kids to become high achievers. For example, research suggests that when parents praise effort rather than ability, children develop a stronger work ethic and become more motivated.

Yet although some parents live vicariously through their children’s accomplishments, success is not the No. 1 priority for most parents. We’re much more concerned about our children becoming kind, compassionate and helpful. Surveys reveal that in the United States, parents from European, Asian, Hispanic and African ethnic groups all place far greater importance on caring than achievement. These patterns hold around the world: When people in 50 countries were asked to report their guiding principles in life, the value that mattered most was not achievement, but caring.

Despite the significance that it holds in our lives, teaching children to care about others is no simple task. In an Israeli study of nearly 600 families, parents who valued kindness and compassion frequently failed to raise children who shared those values.

Are some children simply good-natured — or not? For the past decade, I’ve been studying the surprising success of people who frequently help others without any strings attached. As the father of two daughters and a son, I’ve become increasingly curious about how these generous tendencies develop.

Genetic twin studies suggest that anywhere from a quarter to more than half of our propensity to be giving and caring is inherited. That leaves a lot of room for nurture, and the evidence on how parents raise kind and compassionate children flies in the face of what many of even the most well-intentioned parents do in praising good behavior, responding to bad behavior, and communicating their values.

By age 2, children experience some moral emotions — feelings triggered by right and wrong. To reinforce caring as the right behavior, research indicates, praise is more effective than rewards. Rewards run the risk of leading children to be kind only when a carrot is offered, whereas praise communicates that sharing is intrinsically worthwhile for its own sake. But what kind of praise should we give when our children show early signs of generosity?

Many parents believe it’s important to compliment the behavior, not the child — that way, the child learns to repeat the behavior. Indeed, I know one couple who are careful to say, “That was such a helpful thing to do,” instead of, “You’re a helpful person.”

But is that the right approach? In a clever experiment, the researchers Joan E. Grusec and Erica Redler set out to investigate what happens when we commend generous behavior versus generous character. After 7- and 8-year-olds won marbles and donated some to poor children, the experimenter remarked, “Gee, you shared quite a bit.”

The researchers randomly assigned the children to receive different types of praise. For some of the children, they praised the action: “It was good that you gave some of your marbles to those poor children. Yes, that was a nice and helpful thing to do.” For others, they praised the character behind the action: “I guess you’re the kind of person who likes to help others whenever you can. Yes, you are a very nice and helpful person.”

A couple of weeks later, when faced with more opportunities to give and share, the children were much more generous after their character had been praised than after their actions had been. Praising their character helped them internalize it as part of their identities. The children learned who they were from observing their own actions: I am a helpful person. This dovetails with new research led by the psychologist Christopher J. Bryan, who finds that for moral behaviors, nouns work better than verbs. To get 3- to 6-year-olds to help with a task, rather than inviting them “to help,” it was 22 to 29 percent more effective to encourage them to “be a helper.” Cheating was cut in half when instead of, “Please don’t cheat,” participants were told, “Please don’t be a cheater.” When our actions become a reflection of our character, we lean more heavily toward the moral and generous choices. Over time it can become part of us.

When our actions become a reflection of our character, we lean more heavily toward the moral and generous choices. Over time it can become part of us.

Praise appears to be particularly influential in the critical periods when children develop a stronger sense of identity. When the researchers Joan E. Grusec and Erica Redler praised the character of 5-year-olds, any benefits that may have emerged didn’t have a lasting impact: They may have been too young to internalize moral character as part of a stable sense of self. And by the time children turned 10, the differences between praising character and praising actions vanished: Both were effective. Tying generosity to character appears to matter most around age 8, when children may be starting to crystallize notions of identity.

Praise in response to good behavior may be half the battle, but our responses to bad behavior have consequences, too. When children cause harm, they typically feel one of two moral emotions: shame or guilt. Despite the common belief that these emotions are interchangeable, research led by the psychologist June Price Tangney reveals that they have very different causes and consequences.

Shame is the feeling that I am a bad person, whereas guilt is the feeling that I have done a bad thing. Shame is a negative judgment about the core self, which is devastating: Shame makes children feel small and worthless, and they respond either by lashing out at the target or escaping the situation altogether. In contrast, guilt is a negative judgment about an action, which can be repaired by good behavior. When children feel guilt, they tend to experience remorse and regret, empathize with the person they have harmed, and aim to make it right.

In one study spearheaded by the psychologist Karen Caplovitz Barrett, parents rated their toddlers’ tendencies to experience shame and guilt at home. The toddlers received a rag doll, and the leg fell off while they were playing with it alone. The shame-prone toddlers avoided the researcher and did not volunteer that they broke the doll. The guilt-prone toddlers were more likely to fix the doll, approach the experimenter, and explain what happened. The ashamed toddlers were avoiders; the guilty toddlers were amenders.

Continue reading the main storyContinue reading the main storyContinue reading the main story
If we want our children to care about others, we need to teach them to feel guilt rather than shame when they misbehave. In a review of research on emotions and moral development, the psychologist Nancy Eisenberg suggests that shame emerges when parents express anger, withdraw their love, or try to assert their power through threats of punishment: Children may begin to believe that they are bad people. Fearing this effect, some parents fail to exercise discipline at all, which can hinder the development of strong moral standards.

The most effective response to bad behavior is to express disappointment. According to independent reviews by Professor Eisenberg and David R. Shaffer, parents raise caring children by expressing disappointment and explaining why the behavior was wrong, how it affected others, and how they can rectify the situation. This enables children to develop standards for judging their actions, feelings of empathy and responsibility for others, and a sense of moral identity, which are conducive to becoming a helpful person. The beauty of expressing disappointment is that it communicates disapproval of the bad behavior, coupled with high expectations and the potential for improvement: “You’re a good person, even if you did a bad thing, and I know you can do better.”

As powerful as it is to criticize bad behavior and praise good character, raising a generous child involves more than waiting for opportunities to react to the actions of our children. As parents, we want to be proactive in communicating our values to our children. Yet many of us do this the wrong way.

In a classic experiment, the psychologist J. Philippe Rushton gave 140 elementary- and middle-school-age children tokens for winning a game, which they could keep entirely or donate some to a child in poverty. They first watched a teacher figure play the game either selfishly or generously, and then preach to them the value of taking, giving or neither. The adult’s influence was significant: Actions spoke louder than words. When the adult behaved selfishly, children followed suit. The words didn’t make much difference — children gave fewer tokens after observing the adult’s selfish actions, regardless of whether the adult verbally advocated selfishness or generosity. When the adult acted generously, students gave the same amount whether generosity was preached or not — they donated 85 percent more than the norm in both cases. When the adult preached selfishness, even after the adult acted generously, the students still gave 49 percent more than the norm. Children learn generosity not by listening to what their role models say, but by observing what they do.

Credit Rutu Modan
To test whether these role-modeling effects persisted over time, two months later researchers observed the children playing the game again. Would the modeling or the preaching influence whether the children gave — and would they even remember it from two months earlier?

The most generous children were those who watched the teacher give but not say anything. Two months later, these children were 31 percent more generous than those who observed the same behavior but also heard it preached. The message from this research is loud and clear: If you don’t model generosity, preaching it may not help in the short run, and in the long run, preaching is less effective than giving while saying nothing at all.

People often believe that character causes action, but when it comes to producing moral children, we need to remember that action also shapes character. As the psychologist Karl Weick is fond of asking, “How can I know who I am until I see what I do? How can I know what I value until I see where I walk?”

Adam Grant is a professor of management and psychology at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania and the author of “Give and Take: Why Helping Others Drives Our Success.”

Sunday, February 8, 2015

«Μαμά, δε θέλω να διαβάσω»

Η νέα γενιά μαμάδων και μπαμπάδων μεγάλωσε με ένα στόχο. Να τελειώσουν το πανεπιστήμιο και να βρουν μια καλή δουλειά. Οι περισσότεροι κατάφεραν να ολοκληρώσουν μόνο το πρώτο μέρος του στόχου. Παρόλα αυτά, συνεχίζουν να πιέζουν τα παιδιά να κάνουν το ίδιο, να πετύχουν στις πανελλήνιες, να πάρουν όλα τα πτυχία τους για να μπορέσουν να βρουν μια καλή δουλειά. Μα είναι τελικά αυτός ο μόνος δρόμος προς την επιτυχία;

Πρώτος στόχος δεν είναι να είμαστε ευτυχισμένοι; Πρώτος στόχος δεν είναι να κάνουμε αυτό που αγαπάμε; Η ερώτηση που απαντήσαμε στο σχολείο ήταν «Τι θέλεις να γίνεις όταν μεγαλώσεις;», και μεγαλώνοντας, ξεχάσαμε τις απαντήσεις που είχαμε δώσει τότε. Και τώρα, οι περισσότεροι βρίσκονται από την άλλη πλευρά. Έγιναν οι άνθρωποι που θεωρούν επιτυχία έναν αριθμό πάνω σε μια κόλλα χαρτί… Στην αρχή ο βαθμός του σχολείου και λίγο αργότερα το ποσό στο χαρτί της μισθοδοσίας. Και κάπου στην πορεία, ανάμεσα στα νούμερα, ανάμεσα στα χαμένα και στα κερδισμένα όνειρα, σε αυτά που ελπίζαμε ότι θα κάνουμε και σε αυτά που κάναμε, κάποιοι έγιναν γονείς. Και θέλουν τα παιδιά τους να πετύχουν, θέλουν έναν μεγάλο βαθμό πάνω σε μια κόλλα χαρτί. Μια ελπίδα ότι το παιδί θα έχει όλα τα θεμέλια για να πετύχει μετά το σχολείο και κανένα εμπόδιο δε θα το σταματήσει. Και γίνονται οι ίδιοι οι γονείς το εμπόδιο στην ευτυχία του.

Τι γίνεται, όμως, όταν το παιδί δε διαβάζει; Όταν το παιδί δεν προσέχει; Τι κάνει ο καθηγητής; Τι κάνει ο μαθητής; Τι κάνει η μαμά και ο μπαμπάς;

Ως καθηγήτρια, η πρώτη αντίδρασή μου, όταν βλέπω ένα παιδί να μη θέλει να διαβάσει, είναι να το πάρω με το καλό. Να του αλλάξω λίγο κατεύθυνση, να μην το πιέσω και τόσο πολύ. Και οι βδομάδες περνάνε κι εμείς δεν προχωράμε και το παιδί συνεχίζει να μη διαβάζει. Μετά δείχνω λίγο πιο σκληρό πρόσωπο. Αρχίζω να βάζω τιμωρίες, να φωνάζω. Και τότε είναι που θυμάμαι πώς είναι να είσαι παιδί. Μπαίνω στη θέση του, αντιλαμβάνομαι πως φεύγοντας θα χαίρεται που έφυγα και θα νιώθει αποστροφή στην ιδέα να ξαναπάω πίσω. Μιλάω με τη μαμά, ρωτάω πώς τα πάει στο σχολείο. Συνήθως σχολείο και ιδιαίτερα ή φροντιστήρια έχουν παράλληλη πορεία, οπότε η απάντηση ποτέ δεν αποτελεί έκπληξη. Άλλες μαμάδες φωνάζουν, άλλες αγχώνονται, άλλες πελαγώνουν κι άλλες με ρωτούν τι να κάνουν.

Πώς πρέπει, λοιπόν, να αντιμετωπίσει ο γονιός ένα παιδί που δε διαβάζει; Πότε πρέπει να ανησυχήσει; Και τελικά, πρέπει να ανησυχήσει; Υπάρχει λύση; Είναι μία και λειτουργεί για όλα τα παιδιά; Επιβράβευση ή τιμωρία; Σιωπή ή φωνή;

~ Ζωή Μακρή/ Καθηγήτρια Αγγλικής Γλώσσας


Διαβάζοντας το κείμενο της Ζωής θυμήθηκα εκείνη την παλιά ιστορία που μάθαμε από τις γιαγιάδες μας για τη μάνα κουκουβάγια που βρίσκει το παιδί της το ομορφότερο, το καλύτερο και το εξυπνότερο του κόσμου. Το ερώτημα που γεννιέται είναι τι γίνεται όταν τα παιδιά έρχονται να διαψεύσουν τις προσδοκίες μας.

Τα παιδιά γίνονται οι δικές μας προβολές. Μέσα από τη συμπεριφορά τους εκφράζεται ο τρόπος ζωής της οικογένειας, οι προτεραιότητες, οι ανάγκες και τα συναισθήματα. Μέσα από τις επιλογές τους καθρεφτίζονται συχνά οι ίδιοι οι γονείς. Έτσι, ακόμα κι αν εμείς όταν ήμαστε παιδιά νιώθαμε αποστροφή για το διάβασμα και το σχολείο, το να είναι τα παιδιά μας καλοί μαθητές γίνεται θέμα υψίστης σημασίας, καθώς ασυνείδηταμεταφράζεται στο ότι εμείς αποτελούμε καλούς γονείς.

Μόνο που κάθε παιδί έχει τη μοναδικότητά του. Μιλώντας με γονείς και εκπαιδευτικούς το αίτημα που εκφράζεται είναι «πώς θα κάνω το παιδί μου να διαβάσει;». Σπάνια το ενδιαφέρον επικεντρώνεται στο γιατί ένα παιδί, που η τάση του για μάθηση είναι έμφυτη, αρνείται να διαβάσει. Το αποτέλεσμα είναι να εστιάζουμε στο δέντρο, χάνοντας το δάσος: αδυνατούμε να «ακούσουμε» τις πραγματικές ανάγκες του παιδιού μας και να δημιουργήσουμε εκείνη τη γέφυρα που θα το βοηθήσει να κάνει τα επόμενα βήματα. Ένας φαύλος κύκλος ξεκινά.

Ένας κύκλος που μαθαίνει στα παιδιά πως το να μη διαβάζουν είναι ένας τρόπος να κερδίζουν την προσοχή των γονιών τους, να επικοινωνούν μαζί τους με έναν τρόπο, ακόμα κι αν χαρακτηρίζεται από αρνητικό πρόσημο.

Στην πράξη, λοιπόν, όταν ένα παιδί αρνείται να διαβάσει, πριν θυμώσουμε, είναι σημαντικό να καταλάβουμε γιατί: μπορεί να μην ξέρει τον τρόπο, μπορεί να δυσκολεύεται στη συγκέντρωση, μπορεί να είναι κουρασμένο, μπορεί να μην καταλαβαίνει αυτό που προσπαθεί να μάθει, μπορεί απλώς να αντιδρά στη δική μας πίεση. Κάθε πιθανή απάντηση συνοδεύεται και από μία διαφορετική αντιμετώπιση. Έτσι, για παράδειγμα, σε ένα παιδί που δεν συγκεντρώνεται χρειάζεται να φτιάξουμε ένα περιβάλλον μελέτης απομονωμένο από πολλά ερεθίσματα και να δίνουμε κάθε φορά μικρές και σαφείς οδηγίες. Από την άλλη σε ένα παιδί που απλώς αντιδρά, είναι σημαντικό να κάνουμε ένα βήμα πίσω, επιτρέποντάς του να κάνει τη δική του επιλογή, να βρει το προσωπικό του κίνητρο για μάθηση.

Το κοινό σημείο σε κάθε προσέγγιση είναι ο σεβασμός στην ανάγκη του παιδιού. Η ενεργή ακρόαση και η ενσυναίσθηση βοηθούν στο χτίσιμο μιας λειτουργικής επικοινωνίας μαζί του. Σκοπό αποτελεί το να καταφέρει το παιδί να φρουρεί τα όνειρά του. Το σχολικό διάβασμα αποτελεί έναν από τους δρόμους αλλά όχι τον μοναδικό. Ο γονέας οφείλει να πάρει το παιδί του από το χέρι να εξερευνήσουν μαζί όλους τους πιθανούς δρόμους. Όχι σαν επιβολέας εξουσίας αλλά σαν εκείνο τον πολύτιμο βοηθό, που μαζί του το παιδί θα νιώσει την ασφάλεια και τη σιγουριά να πειραματιστεί και να ανοίξει τα φτερά του.


~ Αθηνά Παπαδοπούλου, Ψυχολόγος- Ψυχοθεραπεύτρια (Δραματοθεραπεύτρια)

Φωτογραφικό υλικό Έλενα Κουμίδου


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